What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose, resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control glucose levels. Diabetes can lead to serious complications and even premature death. However, people with diabetes can take steps to control this disease and lower the risk of complications.
How many Americans have diabetes and pre-diabetes?
· 25.8 million Americans have diabetes — 8.3% of the U.S. population. Of these, roughly 7 million do not know they have the disease.· In 2010, about 1.9 million people ages 20 or older were diagnosed with diabetes.
The number of people diagnosed with diabetes has risen from 1.5 million in 1958 to 18.8 million in 2010, an increase of epidemic proportions.
· It is estimated that 79 million adults aged 20 and older have pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Studies have shown that by maintaining a healthy weight and increasing physical activity, people are able to prevent or delay pre-diabetes from progressing to diabetes.
What is the prevalence of diabetes by type?
· Type 1 (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset) diabetes account for approximately 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults.
· Type 2 (previously called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 % of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more prevalent in children and adolescents.
· Gestational diabetes occurs in about 2 to 10 % of pregnancies. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 35 to 60% chance of developing diabetes, usually type 2, in the next 10 to 20 years.